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Migrate from Auth.js to Clerk

You will learn how to:

    • Install @clerk/nextjs
    • Set environment keys
    • Wrap your Next.js app in <ClerkProvider />
    • Set up sign-up and sign-in UI
    • Protect your app
    • Read user and session data
    • User IDs as Foreign Keys
    • Create a production instance
    • Migrate users to a production instance
    • Find further support
Migration Script Repository

Introduction

This guide shows how to migrate an application using Auth.js (formerly NextAuth.js) to use Clerk for authentication.

Install @clerk/nextjs

Clerk's Next.js SDK gives you access to prebuilt components, hooks, and helpers for Next.js Server Components, Route Handlers and Middleware. Install it by running the following command in your terminal:

terminal
npm install @clerk/nextjs
terminal
yarn add @clerk/nextjs
terminal
pnpm add @clerk/nextjs

Set environment keys

Add the following code to your .env.local file to set your public and secret keys.

Pro tip! If you are signed into your Clerk Dashboard(opens in a new tab), your secret key should become visible by clicking on the eye icon.

.env.local
NEXT_PUBLIC_CLERK_PUBLISHABLE_KEY={{pub_key}} CLERK_SECRET_KEY={{secret}}

Wrap your Next.js app in <ClerkProvider />

You will need to remove the <SessionProvider session={session}> provider from Auth.js and replace it with the <ClerkProvider /> provider from Clerk. <ClerkProvider /> will need to wrap your application, or wrap the portion of your app where you want to handle authentication.

app/layout.tsx
import { ClerkProvider } from '@clerk/nextjs' import './globals.css' export default function RootLayout({ children, }: { children: React.ReactNode }) { return ( <ClerkProvider> <html lang="en"> <body>{children}</body> </html> </ClerkProvider> ) }
pages/_app.tsx
import '@/styles/globals.css' import { ClerkProvider } from "@clerk/nextjs"; import type { AppProps } from "next/app"; function MyApp({ Component, pageProps }: AppProps) { return ( <ClerkProvider {...pageProps}> <Component {...pageProps} /> </ClerkProvider> ); } export default MyApp;

Set up sign-up and sign-in UI

Account Portal

Account Portal is the fastest way to authenticate your app. Clerk's Account Portal hosts the <SignIn />, <SignUp />, <UserProfile />, and other components for your application. Read more about Account Portal.

To use the Account Portal, remove the routes that mount the Auth.js sign-in and sign-up UI. Replace the links to those routes with the <SignInButton> or <SignUpButton> components.

Self-hosted UI

If Clerk's Account Portal pages aren't a good fit your app, you can build a custom sign-in and sign-up UI in one of two ways:

Protect your app

With Clerk, you can control access to your application in a few different ways. One way is to use Clerk's Middleware to protect your entire application, or specific routes. Another way is to use Clerk's components to conditionally render UI based on the user's authentication state. You can hide or show UI based on whether the user is signed in or not.

Control access to your app with Clerk Middleware

You will need to remove the Auth.js Middleware from your application, and replace it with the Clerk's Middleware helper, authMiddleware().

Auth.js's middleware always rejects unauthorized requests. You may have additionally configured the Next.js middleware config to protect specific private routes. You will need to make note of this configuration so you can recreate it.

Clerk's Middleware gives you fine-grained control over handling the authenticated state and will, by default, run for your entire application.

The example below is a basic configuration that requires authentication for all routes. You will need to edit this to allow specific routes to be public, as needed. Read the authMiddleware() documentation to learn more about how you can configure your Middleware.

middleware.ts
import { authMiddleware } from "@clerk/nextjs"; // This example protects all routes including api/trpc routes // Please edit this to allow other routes to be public as needed. // See https://clerk.com/docs/references/nextjs/auth-middleware for more information about configuring your Middleware export default authMiddleware({}); export const config = { matcher: ["/((?!.+\\.[\\w]+$|_next).*)", "/", "/(api|trpc)(.*)"], };

Control access to your app with Clerk's components

To conditionally render UI when the user is signed in, wrap it with <SignedIn>.

To conditionally render UI when the user is not signed in, wrap it with <SignedOut>.

app/page.tsx
import { SignedIn, SignedOut } from "@clerk/nextjs"; export default function Home() { return ( <div> <SignedOut> <p>This content is public. Only signed out users can see this.</p> </SignedOut> <SignedIn> <p>This content is private. Only signed in users can see this.</p> </SignedIn> </div> ) }

Read user and session data

Server side

Replace any Auth.js getServerSession(req, res, authOptions) with Clerk's helpers.

You can replace Auth.js's setServerSession() with Clerk's auth() helper in order to read your user data.

import { auth, currentUser } from "@clerk/nextjs"; export default async function Page() { const { userId } = auth(); console.log(userId) return ( <p>Home Page</p> ) }

Client Side

Replace Auth.js's useSession() hook with Clerk's hooks.

Clerk's useAuth() hook can be used to retrieve basic authentication information. Clerk's useUser() hook can be used to retrieve the full User(opens in a new tab) object, which includes information about the user, such as their first name, emails, phone numbers, and more.

app/page.tsx
'use client' import { useAuth, useUser } from "@clerk/nextjs"; export default function Home() { const { userId, sessionId } = useAuth(); const { isSignedIn, user } = useUser(); console.log(userId, sessionId, isSignedIn, user) return ( <p>Home Page</p> ) }

User IDs as Foreign Keys

When you migrate to Clerk, you will likely need to resolve the foreign key that you used in your database. If you used the userId from NextAuth.js, you could resolve this issue with one of the following two options:

Use Clerk's externalId field

When you migrate user data from Auth.js to Clerk, Clerk generates new user IDs for each user. If you are using existing user IDs as foreign keys in your database (e.g. in a user_id column), you can save those IDs as the user's externalId in Clerk. This externalId can be included in the session token by adding the following customization. The following example will set the user's ID to be externalId if one is present, otherwise, it will use the Clerk's user ID.

{ "userId": "{{user.external_id || user.id}}" }

To access the userId from the session claims, you can use the auth() helper.

app/page.tsx
import { auth } from "@clerk/nextjs"; export default async function Page() { const { sessionClaims: { userId } } = auth() console.log(userId) return ( <p>Home Page</p> ) }

You can not access the above from the client side. If you are using one of Clerk's hooks, then you will need to check if externalID exists. If it doesn't, then read the userId.

Update your database

Alternatively, after the data migration, you can update all the user IDs stored in your database as a foreign key to the new Clerk user IDs.

You can read more about user IDs and user data migration in the Migration Script README(opens in a new tab).

Create a Clerk production instance

Every Clerk application has a Development and a Production instance. Before you start migrating user data, you need to configure your Clerk Production instance and migrate your Auth.js users directly into that instance. The Deploying to Production page covers creating a Production instance.

You can migrate a small set of users on the Development instance for testing/staging. To enable importing users to your Development instance, add IMPORT_TO_DEV_INSTANCE=true to the .env for the migration script.

Migrate user data from Auth.js to Clerk

This walkthrough will help you move user data from your existing database to Clerk.

To retain the user data in your database for easy querying, check out the documentation on data synchronization with webhooks.

  1. Clone github.com/clerk/migration-script
  2. Create a .env file in the root of the cloned repository with the CLERK_SECRET_KEY of your Production instance.
  3. Export all the user data from your database into a users.json file. The file should be in the following format:
users.json
[ { "userId": "string", "email": "email", "firstName": "string (optional)", "lastName": "string (optional)", "password": "string (optional)", "passwordHasher": "argon2 | argon | bcrypt | md5 | pbkdf2_sha256 | pbkdf2_sha256_django | pbkdf2_sha1 | scrypt_firebase", } ]
  1. If you already have an API endpoint in your Auth.js app that returns a list of users, you can use that. Otherwise, you will need to query your database to obtain the user information, or use an export function from a database management tool.

The example below is a SQL query that would return the user information in the correct format for the migration script.

SELECT id as userId, email, name FROM users
  1. Edit the .env. file in the migration, and add your Clerk Secret Key using CLERK_SECRET_KEY
  2. Run the script with npm start
  3. Check that your users are listed in the Users(opens in a new tab) section of the Clerk Dashboard. If the users appear to have imported correctly, verify by signing in to your application secured by Clerk with your user account.
  4. Check for an error log for any users that were not migrated successfully.

Finding further support for migrating from Auth.js to Clerk

This guide covers the most common steps that you would take for the migration. If you have more complex integrations with Auth.js that are not covered here, don't hesitate to reach out in the Clerk Discord(opens in a new tab) by creating a post in the Support channel(opens in a new tab).

Last updated on February 7, 2024

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